Walnut (lat. Júglan régia) is a species of trees of the genus Walnut of the Walnut family (Juglandaceae). Walnut trees growing in favorable soil and climatic conditions are very durable. Only grafted planting material of zoned varieties on a walnut rootstock are used for planting. The world demand for walnuts has never been fully supplied. According to various experts, the demand for walnuts is increasing every year. This is due to the biological properties of the walnut and the limited climate zones in which this species can grow. According to various estimates, only 4 to 7% of the world's land is suitable for growing walnuts.
The walnut is a fairly flexible crop and can grow in different soils and climatic conditions, though the strength of tree growth and productivity largely depends on the soil and location of the site. Sites should be well protected from significant cold air flow. The amount of precipitation per year should be within 500-800 mm, the relative humidity of the air should be 60-80%, the depth of groundwater should be 2-4 m, the average annual temperature should be +9 to +10 ℃, and winter frosts should not reach -23 to -25 ℃.
Walnut trees grow best on ”rich” black soils of all subtypes and varieties. Walnuts grows well in carbonate soils. Wetlands should be avoided.
The soil should be prepared the same way as for orchards: it is necessary to apply an average of 60 tons of manure and 300 kg of phosphorus and potash fertilizers per hectare, after that plantation plowing is planned to a depth of 60-70 cm, in the spring the soil is cultivated and harrowed.
Recently, there have been trends in the cultivation of intensive walnut orchards. They use varieties of French and Italian selection, which allow planting seedlings in patterns of 6x6 m and 7x7 m. Unlike the traditional planting scheme of 10x10 m, 12x12 m, this allows the grower to get a 2-3 times higher yield. The yield in traditional cultivation varies from 0.5 to 1 t/ha, while an intensive plantation scheme will provide between 3 to 5 t/ha.
Since the walnut is a very moisture-loving crop, growing walnuts without irrigation is almost impossible. Two methods of irrigation are commonly used - drip and sprinkler irrigation. In some cases, they are combined. In the first year of planting, the walnut consumes approximately 50 liters of irrigation water per tree every 4-6 days, the second year - 100 liters per tree, the 3rd year - 150 liters per tree, and during the period of full fruiting – about 250 liters per tree per one irrigation every 5-7 days.
Walnut is very sensitive to fertilization. To calculate the optimal rate of fertilizer application, it is necessary to analyze the soil and irrigation water. In addition to main pre-plant fertilization, it is necessary to use water-soluble fertilizers through a drip irrigation system.
Large hazel, or “Lombard nut” (lat. Corylusmaxima) is a species of deciduous woody shrubs of the genus Hazel (Corylus) of the Birch family (Betulaceae), the fruits of which are known as hazelnuts.
Currently, the production of hazelnuts is widespread in many countries of the world, but its production is most developed in Turkey, USA, Italy, Spain, the Balkans, the Caucasus, some countries in Asia and a number of European countries.
Hazelnut gardens are planted on flat areas or slopes of various exposures. Hazelnut grows well and bears fruit on sufficiently fertile and moisture-rich soils, as well as on sandy and carbonate soils. Waterlogged and swampy areas with a close occurrence of groundwater are unsuitable for hazelnuts. The scheme of planting a hazelnut garden depends on the soil and climatic conditions of the area of cultivation. The most common planting schemes are: 7×5 m, 8×6 m, 6×6 m, 7×7 m. When choosing a planting scheme, the possibility of caring for plantings using machines and mechanisms, the condition of the soil, and the presence of water are taken into account.
Spatial attention is paid to the formation of hazelnuts. It can be formed as a bush, or as a tree, leaving a bole.
Hazelnut gardens are very responsive to irrigation. Usually, drip irrigation is used for watering, which allows the grower to get a yield 50% higher compared to non-irrigated hazelnut orchards. In the first year after planting, hazelnuts trees use approximately 12-14 liters of water per tree every 3-5 days, an adult fruit-bearing tree should receive at least 18-22 liters of water per tree every 2-4 days. Irrigation time depends on soil and climatic conditions.
Also, to obtain high yields, it is necessary to use fertilization by fertigation, through an irrigation system.
The most effective doses of fertilizers for young hazelnut plantations are N60 P60 K30, for fruit-bearing plantations - N120 P120 K60.
Domestic, or cultivated apple tree (Malus domestica), which includes most of the varieties cultivated in the world (the number of which exceeds 10 thousand).
The apple tree is the most common fruit crop in the temperate climate zone. Due to its ecological plasticity, it is grown in many parts of the world. This crop is grown in an annually increasing volume of production. The apple tree is a very frost-resistant crop, so it is grown in different climatic zones.
Depending on the variety, rootstock and growing method, the apple tree begins to bear fruit from the 1st or 3rd year. Intensive orchards are laid mainly on the dwarf rootstock M.9, which allows the use of a planting pattern of 4 x 1 m, 3.5 - 1 m, etc. This planting scheme allows you to get a crop of at least 30 t/ha and more.
For apple trees on rootstock M.9, fertile soils are suitable, light and medium in their granulometric composition, loamy, light loamy soils, with a mold content of at least 1.5%.
In an intensive orchard, growing an apple tree is almost impossible without a drip irrigation system and fertigation.
The apple tree is very demanding in terms of irrigation. The best option for an intensive garden is drip irrigation, in some cases under-crown or over-crown irrigation by sprinklers.
The optimal water supply of trees on a dwarf rootstock contributes to obtaining fruits of the required size and quality. In places with frequent frosts, drip irrigation is used together with fine-dispersion sprinkling. Such model of irrigation requires significantly larger volumes of water, high-performance pumps and large-diameter pipelines.
In the first year after planting, about 8-10 liters of water per tree are usually used, from the 3rd year and during the period of full fruiting 16-22 liters of water per tree. Insure the use of water-soluble fertilizers together with irrigation. The nutrition system is determined annually by analyses of water and soil. The reservoir for the irrigation water should be provided in proximity to the plantation, most often it will be an artificial pool, the volume of which is calculated by irrigation specialists.
Pear (lat. Pýrus) is a genus of fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs of the Rosaceae family.
The pear is the second most common fruit crop in the temperate climate zone. The fruits of the pear are valued for their dessert taste and, like the apple tree, are widely used in the food processing industry.
Unlike the apple tree, the pear assortment is represented by four main varieties that are used in horticulture. The largest number of varieties is represented by the house pear.
In general, the pear is less hardy than the apple tree. Modern varieties are conditionally divided into two main groups:
- varieties of southern origin, with resistance up to -24С;
- frost-resistant varieties that can withstand up to -30C.
There are varieties that can withstand even lower temperatures, but they have recently been scarcely used in industrial horticulture, since they cannot compete in terms of productivity and yield quality.
Most Pear varieties are thermophilic. In order to obtain yield during a typical growing season, a pear requires a significantly larger amount of active temperatures (above 10C) than an apple tree.The thermophilicity of a pear is also manifested in a much lower, in comparison with an apple tree, resistance of generative formations to frost. Therefore, over-crown sprinkling is often used in production, which helps reduce the spring frosts damage.
The pear is very responsive to irrigation and fertilization. Most often, a drip irrigation system is used, which allows watering and fertilizing at the same time. On average, a pear consumes 4-5.5 mm of water per hectare per irrigation, depending on the soil and climatic zone. The fertigation scheme is calculated based on soil analysis and water analysis data.
Sweet cherry (Cerasus avium Moenh) is a fruit crop of the cherry genus. In the wild, it is found in Central and Southern Europe, in Ukraine, in Moldova, in the Caucasus. Cultivated in European countries, China, Turkey, Japan. The cultural form of sweet cherry is a tree up to 10-12 m high with a pronounced trunk and a tiered arrangement of branches.
As a stock in the southern regions, wild cherries are used, in more northern regions, Magaleb cherries are used. Cherry trees begin to bear fruit in the 3-4th year. For good pollination and fruit set, several varieties are planted on the same site.
To obtain high yields, intensive planting patterns of 4.5 x 2.5 m, 4.5 x 2.5 m, 4 x 2 m are used. Often, the planting pattern is selected depending on the mechanized equipment available on the farm.
In intensive orchards, growing sweet cherries is difficult without a drip irrigation system. To obtain a high yield, it is necessary to irrigate while applying water-soluble fertilizers. In the first year after planting, it is necessary to provide from 10 to 14 liters of water per tree every 2-3 days, the second year 16-20 liters per tree every 2-3 days and with full fruiting from 30 liters to 38 liters per tree every 2-3 days. Irrigation rates depend on soil and climate conditions. The fertilizer application rate is calculated based on soil and leaf water tests.
Peach, peach tree (lat. Persica) is a woody plant of the Rosaceae family, a relative of the almond tree. Common peach (Persica vulgaris) is a tree, up to 8 m high, with pink flowers that appear before the leaves.
Peach is a thermophilic tree. Most varieties do not tolerate temperatures below -25°C. Trees reach a height of up to 4 m, with a crown of up to 6 m in diameter. Peach blossoms in mid or late April, within 10-12 days.
A peach tree will usually bear fruit 2-4 years after planting, for a duration of 10-15 years, depending on the variety.
Peaches can be planted both in early spring and early autumn.
Swampy, damp areas, as well as places located in lowlands, are unsuitable for peach. Depending on the fertility of the soil, mineral and organic fertilizers must be applied during planting.
The peach is resistant to drought, but the lack of water affects its development and fruiting. It is best to use a drip irrigation system for watering. On average, a fruitful peach orchard requires between 3 mm to 4.5 mm of water per irrigation. Fertilizers are applied along with irrigation by fertigation. Calculation of fertilizers is carried out after receiving the analysis of soil and water.
Garden tall blueberry - Vaccinium corymbosum.
Native to North America. It is bred on industrial plantations. In the northern states of the United States and Canada, blueberries are more popular than blackcurrants. American blueberries are called tall because they grow up to two meters. The plant blooms in the third year after planting.
Blueberries grow best in open, well-lit areas.
The soil for blueberries should be ventilated, acidic, loose, peaty-sandy. The optimal level of standing groundwater is 40-60 cm from the surface. Under the condition of gradual and frequent watering, much higher depth of groundwater can be acceptable. The main thing, however, is the presence of acidic soil (pH in the range of 3.8–5). To accurately determine the level of acidity, it is better to use a special device - a pH meter, or, if possible, conduct a laboratory study of the soil. Even at a pH of around 6, blueberries grow slowly and often lag behind.
Good results are obtained by growing blueberries in a substrate of rotted coniferous sawdust. With a thick layer (7-15 cm) of the same sawdust, it is useful to mulch the soil even after planting, which helps to retain moisture and inhibits the development of weeds.
Blueberries have a relatively shallow root system - the bulk of the active roots are in the upper 30-40 cm of the soil. Unlike other crops, the root system does not have root hairs, so the plant is very sensitive to the level of moisture in the soil or substrate.
It is important to maintain soil or substrate moisture at a constant level. In a dry substrate, the root system begins to die off and is very slowly restored after the next irrigation. When the substrate dries out, it will be quite difficult to re-moisten it.
Excess moisture is also harmful. In waterlogged soil, the plant does not receive enough oxygen and the risk of developing root system diseases increases. Therefore, the site must be well-drained so that during periods of intense rains or excessive watering, water does not linger in the soil. Drip irrigation is most often used together with overhead sprinkling, which allows for irrigation and increasing air humidity. Most often, two drip lines per row are used.
Strawberry is a perennial herbaceous plant. The aerial part is formed by stems, leaves, creeping shoots (whiskers), fruit formations. The root part consists of roots and rhizomes.
Strawberries grow well and bear fruit on black soils, gray forest, soddy-podzolic soils of medium density.
Most often, soils are chosen for having a light loamy and sandy loamy texture, providing good aeration of the root system and sufficient water-holding capacity. It is important to avoid heavy clay soils - in conditions of high humidity and poor air access, plants are more susceptible to diseases of the root system.
Strawberry plants grow better and bear fruit in a slightly acidic soil solution (pH in the range of 5.8-6.2).
The depth of groundwater in the allotted fields for planting strawberries should be at least 60-80 cm from the soil surface.
Strawberries successfully withstand low temperatures in the presence of snow cover in winter. When there is no snow, at temperatures below minus 12-16ºС, the plants partially freeze or die completely. Plants that have been adequately supplied with nutrients, moisture, and not weakened by diseases and pests during the growing season will overwinter better.
High and constant strawberry yields are obtained only if the soil is evenly provided with moisture at a depth of 0-40 cm of the main mass of the root system. Even with precipitation, strawberries require irrigation in the phases of flowering, crop formation, berry picking and bud differentiation. Be sure to use a drip irrigation system capable of fertigation.
By the nature of growth and fruiting, raspberries belong to the bush berries. The aerial part of the raspberry is a semi-bush, which is formed from the buds that formed on the rhizome and roots.
Raspberries do not tolerate salinity. The optimum soil pH for raspberries is 5.0-6.0. Suitable soils for growing raspberries are all types of light and medium texture (sandy, light and medium loamy). It is impossible to plant raspberry plantations on waterlogged, saline, carbonate and sandy soils. The depth of groundwater should not exceed 1-1.5m.
The requirements for the temperature regime depend on the varietal characteristics and the level of cultivation technology.
The sum of active temperatures is 2000C, the optimum temperature during the growing season is 16-20 C. Raspberries react negatively to high temperatures. Despite this, raspberry is a winter-hardy crop, withstands 2-3 weeks of frost in snowless winters, at a temperature of minus 20-30 C.
During the growth of the shoots and during the fruiting period, raspberries are especially demanding on a sufficient amount of water. Moisture deficiency leads to a weakening of the growth of shoots, the berries become smaller, many of them dry out by the time they ripen.
For raspberries, not only soil moisture, but also air humidity are important. Favorable areas for growing raspberries are areas with an annual rainfall of about 700-800mm.
Drip irrigation plays an important role, regardless of the variety and fertility of the soil, thanks to which the grower can get high-quality raspberries. On industrial plantations, as a result of improved technology, the quality of the berries is usually higher.
Plantations with an area of more than 3 hectares are the most profitable, many of them have a yield of more than 8 tons / ha. Many advanced gardeners have plantations with average yields ranging from 12-15 t/ha.
Grapes (lat. Vitis) is a genus of plants in the grape family.
Grapes are grown in almost all corners of the globe. The main area of industrial plantations of grapes (more than 80%) is concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. Spain, Italy, France, Turkey have the largest areas. According to available data, there are about 8 million hectares of vineyards in the world, more than half of which grow in Europe.
In recent decades, the geography of industrial viticulture has expanded significantly. China, Chile, South Africa, and Australia are in serious competition with the leading European viticulture and wine-making countries.
In general, more than 80% of the world's grape harvest is used for winemaking, about 15% is consumed fresh, and only 5% is used for the production of raisins and other products.
Unlike many cultivated plants, grapes are more durable.
The vine grows both on the plains and on the slopes, often on lands unsuitable for the cultivation of other crops.
The most favorable climate for grapes is the moderately warm and subtropical. To start the growing season of grapes (depending on the variety), an average daily air temperature of + 6 ... + 12 ℃ is sufficient. Intensive growth of shoots, optimal conditions for flowering, laying and differentiation of reproductive organs occur at a temperature of +25…+30℃. European varieties generally tolerate winter frosts down to -15℃. In some areas with very frosty winters, grape bushes of low frost-resistant varieties are covered for the winter.
The greatest need for water in grapes occurs during the phase of intensive berry growth (June-July). For normal growth and formation of the harvest of a grape plant, about 600-700 mm of precipitation per year is required, if they are evenly distributed over the vegetation phases.
Industrial plantings of grapes should be planted with a row spacing of 3 m. The distance between bushes in a row should be differentiated depending on the variety. For small and medium-sized grape varieties, depending on the type of formation adopted, the distance between the bushes should be 1.2-1.5 m, for vigorous-growing 1.5-1.75 m. Under more favorable terrain conditions, as well as during irrigation, the distance between bushes of some varieties (mainly table varieties) can be increased up to 2 m.
In industrial vineyards, a trellis-row system of bushes is used, the basis of which is a vertical single-plane trellis.
At present, the most progressive method - drip irrigation - has received wide use for watering the vineyard. It is based on irrigation tubes with emitters built into it, which provide a uniform supply of water in drops with an intensity of 1 to 4 liters per hour. Drip irrigation allows to increase the efficiency of water use by 3-4 times due to its savings compared to traditional irrigation, while at the same time increasing productivity by 1.5-2 times due to the creation of optimal water and aeration conditions for plants, as well as due to the possibility of simultaneous application of mineral fertilizers with water (fertigation). To calculate the optimal rate of fertilizer application, it is necessary to analyze the soil and irrigation water. In addition to the main pre-plant fertilization, it is necessary to use water-soluble fertilizers through a drip irrigation system.